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ALL INFORMATION TOSUCCESS YOUR HOLIDAY TO MADAGASCAR

Madagascar, in Malagasy "Madagasikara" is an island located in the western part of Indian Ocean, separated from the southeast coast of Africa by the Mozambique Channel. Its plurality of designation such as "the Great island" or "the Red Island" reflects both the diversity of its aspects as an early description of the country. Its capital is Antananarivo or Tananarive.


I- LAND AND ITS RESOURCES
1 - Relief and Hydrography

The country spans around 587.041 km ˛. Due to its size, Madagascar is the fourth largest island in the world. A central mountainous plateau between 800 to 1200m or the central highlands cover a third part of the island. Partly volcanic mountains rise up to 2876 m Maromokotro in Tsaratanana to the north. The chain of Ankaratra, near the capital rises up 2643 m. To the east, the ground slopes steeply to a thin coastal strip bordering the Indian Ocean, while to the west, it declines slightly to a more spread out coastal plain, bordering the Mozambique Channel. The most fertile lands are concentrated along the coastal areas and river valleys of the central plateau. The north coast to Cape d'Ambre is so clip especially in the region of Diego. This aspect of the massive relief creates the complexity of the water system and the difficulty of navigation. Only a few rivers of Madagascar are accessible to barges and motor boats, because of the steep slope of the terrain. The predominance of traditional transport such as the boat on these rivers is a logical sequence.

2 - Climate
The eastern part of Madagascar receives abundant rainfall, brought by the humid winds from the south-east. The northeast monsoon is causing heavy rains and thunderstorms that plague the summer on the mountains of north, annual rainfall can reach 3050 mm. The climate is temperate on the Central Plateau, where rainfall is more moderate, fairly hot summers and cool winters. Arid regions of south and southwest receive less than 380 mm per year. The greatest rainfall occurs between November and April. The heat reigns throughout the year on coastal regions.
3 - Flora and Fauna of Madagascar
Separated from the African continent for over 160millions years, the Madagascar develloped a flora and fauna unique, where the rate of endemism is extremely high: about 85% of plant species and 90 % of animal species to Madagascar are endemic.
Vegetation and flora
Forests cover more than 12 millions hectares or 20.2% of the area of the country. Except the northern forest areas and patches of primary forest in some areas difficult to penetrate, these are secondary formations that is to say, degraded primary forests. The western coast is lined with mangroves in some respects, present sporadically along the coast of northeast and southeast. Savannah predominates in the drier regions of western and thorny desert vegetation covers the extreme south. Erosion is flagrant to the Highlands due to deforestation.  In addition, another major problem arises to the Madagascar: deforestation caused by logging to obtain timber and firewood and slash and burn agriculture is alarming.
The flora of Madagascar is highly diverse between 8500 and 12 000 species recorded, including contains more than 1000 species of orchids, and 6 of the 8 known species of baobabs. The traveler's tree and the flamboyant, also from Madagascar.
Invertebrates
Invertebrate fauna of Madagascar is valued at more than 100 000 distinct species. Insects, many of which remain to be discovered, are now known by more than 850 species, including almost all endemic to the island. It has, for example, butterflies that gather nearly 400 species. This is in Madagascar we meet one of the rarest butterflies in the world, the wonderful butterfly comet (Argema mittrei), with a wingspan of 15 cm.
The Malagasy coastlines and coral reefs are home to a diverse marine. Among the many tropical fish, some are poisonous, such as stonefish or lionfish, typical of the Indo-Pacific waters. Sharks are also present, especially with the bull shark, leopard shark, shark and reef shark guitar.
Amphibians and reptiles
Madagascar contains over 250 species of reptiles, 95% endemic. This includes especially reptilian life sixty species of snakes, including three species of boas, geckos and many chameleons about fifty, was the example of dwarf chameleon Brookesia minima or not exceeding 3.5 cm long . The only crocodile found in the island is the Nile crocodile.
Amphibians: frogs and toads, are represented by about 180 species, 98% exist in Madagascar.
Birds and mammals
It lists in Madagascar approximately 260 species of birds, which include the red-tailed Phaeton. Mammals have about 150 species and subspecies. Primates are represented by the famous lemurs, all threatened: include the aye-aye, the indri, the maki catta, the Dwarf lemurs and mouse lemur, one of the smallest primates in the world. The fossa, or civet of Madagascar, nocturnal mammal that looks like a small puma, is one of the few carnivores on the island.
Note that from July to October, humpback whales make an appointment to breed wedding off the coast of the island of Sainte-Marie, in the northeast of Madagascar.

Mineral resources
The basement is full of bauxite, chromium, nickel, graphite, iron ore, coal, offshore oil and copper. Each region is rich in specific terrain asleep under the foot of the population.

 



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